It is well known by now that encryption without authentication is insufficient, and many chosen-ciphertext attacks on improperly authenticated ciphertexts are now commonplace. Authenticated encryption—constructions that both encrypt and authenticate plaintexts in one sitting—are widespread at this point, with the two most common instances being AES-GCM and ChaChaPoly1305. One property that the usual definitions of authenticated encryption do not capture is key commitment: a ciphertext is tied to a particular key, and it should not be possible to create ciphertexts that successfully decrypt under more than one key.
A fast pseudorandom generator for KASLR A recent patchset proposed for the Linux KASLR randomizes not only the kernel base address, but also reorders every function at boot time. As such, it no longer suffices to leak an arbitrary kernel function pointer, or so the logic goes. Along with this patchset came a custom random number generator intended to be as fast as possible, so as to keep the boot time overhead at a minimum:
With much attention lately over North Korea and its evolving cybersecurity capabilities, we thought to cover a somewhat related topic. A couple of years back, the North Korean Red Star OS was described at the Chaos Computer Club conference. Among other things, they described the watermarking mechanism used by the OS to keep track of media files. Along with the OS, three kernel modules were identified that appeared to contain homemade encryption algorithms specific to Red Star OS.